Angiologists treat disorders of the arteries, veins, and lymphatic vessels.
It is also important to consult an angiologist in the presence of diabetes or vascular problems.

It is advisable to have an angiological examination when it is necessary to diagnose and treat an already manifest pathology or to prevent any complications regarding the arterial and venous circulation such as aneurysms, embolisms, atherosclerosis, thrombosis, dissections of the aorta.​

In our center it is possible to carry out the following tests with ultrasound color Doppler.


The exam is used to study the common carotid artery, the carotid bifurcation, the internal and external carotid artery as well as the vertebral artery and the subclavian artery, bilaterally.​

Assessing the state of these arteries also means knowing your risk for a stroke or understanding the reason for a transient ischemic attack (TIA).​

The test excludes or confirms the presence of plaques inside the arteries examined and quantifies the degree of their danger based on the percentage of stenosis (i.e. how much space these plaques occupy inside the artery). The type of plaque is also evaluated, which is commonly defined as calcific or lipid and from this it is possible to further understand its danger and best determine a therapeutic procedure.​

An additional evaluation to this exam is the "dynamic study" of the vertebral arteries. These arteries are often implicated in the annoying phenomena of Vertiginous Syndromes which are frequently secondary to head or positional movements.

The dynamic study, which is usually requested by the Oto-Neurologist or Audiologist, has the precise aim of understanding to what extent the circulation of the vertebral arteries is influenced by head movements (dynamic evaluation).

Sometimes, but generally at the specific request of the Audiologist Specialist, the examination is further implemented by the evaluation of the small arterioles that are in the auditory labyrinth. All these tests are painless and non-invasive.


Chronic cerebrovascular venous insufficiency (CCSVI) is a test coined and first developed by Prof. Paolo Zamboni to evaluate the venous return of the blood circulation of the brain. The concept is "as much blood goes in, as much blood has to go out" in a sort of closed circuit circulation.

The evaluation is especially indicated for progressive neurological pathologies, such as Multiple Sclerosis, and can then also be extended to other pathologies such as Meniere's Syndrome, Sudden Deafness, Headaches that rebel against traditional treatments, Parkinson's Disease. Recent evaluations have made it possible to understand that even stomatological problems, such as malocclusions, can alter the cerebrovascular venous return.​

Currently there are few specialists capable of carrying out the examination as indicated by the protocol developed by Zamboni, Dr. Bavera is part of this small group of doctors and his publications in this regard are numerous in addition to his interventions at conferences and congresses, National and International.

It is a non-invasive investigation that requires up to 50-60 minutes of time and possibly the active collaboration of the Patient in performing certain, not difficult, breathing exercises.


Color Doppler ultrasound of the lower limbs is used to evaluate blood circulation in its arterial distribution (i.e. from the heart towards the feet) and venous distribution (the opposite path).

Arterial pathologies often cause pain during walking, with cramps in the thigh or calf, which sometimes force frequent stops in a specific space expressed in metres. Technically described as “intermittent claudication”.

The cause of this could be more or less severe stenosis (i.e. narrowing) of an artery or its complete obstruction.
The possible collateral circles and the severity of the problem as a whole and any other associated pathologies are evaluated.

For a Specialist, venous problems can often be assessed clinically. Yet, to confirm or exclude or to make a differential diagnosis, the ECD is used to evaluate the presence and extent of Superficial Vein Thrombosis (SVT) or Deep Vein Thrombosis (DVT) of a limb. This last pathology is truly dangerous because, if diagnosed late, it can cause pulmonary embolism.

Then, the ECD evaluation quantifies, confirming or excluding, the indication for a possible varicose vein surgery with the very specific aim, when possible, of safeguarding the large vein or the small saphenous vein from interventions that are too radical or even unnecessary such as a saphenectomy. radical.


Often confused as a purely aesthetic treatment, this is not the case.
It should be made clear immediately that these treatments must be conducted by expert hands and by specialists who know the products but also the clinical situations and anatomy.

Sclerosing therapies: deliberately expressed in the plural because sclerotherapy is the expression of a "tailor-made" treatment for the different possible situations of chronic venous insufficiency. So, starting from the telangiectasias (i.e. from the capillaries), up to the actual varicose veins.
It frequently requires periodic "recalls".​

Capillaries, for example, which are ugly to look at but not serious from a clinical point of view, are frequently the expression of an underlying venous insufficiency, not visible to the naked eye. The expression Clinical and not just aesthetic is therefore confirmed.
Treating only the capillaries without "closing" what feeds them is of little use.
This explains the frequent failures of the laser on the capillaries of the lower limbs.

The actual venules and veins are a different story: some can be subjected to sclerotherapy to complete a varicose vein surgery already performed previously while others can be treated to avoid surgery.