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Angiologists treat disorders of the arteries, veins and lymphatic vessels.

It is also important to consult an angiologist if you have diabetes or vascular problems.


An angiological examination is recommended when it is necessary to diagnose and treat an already manifested pathology or to prevent complications of arterial and venous circulation, such as aneurysm, embolism, atherosclerosis, thrombosis, aortic dissection.


In our centre, the following studies can be performed with Ecocolordoppler.

ecodoppler dei tronchi

This test examines the common carotid artery, carotid bifurcation, internal and external carotid arteries, vertebral artery and subclavian artery bilaterally.

Assessing the condition of these arteries also means knowing your risk of having a stroke or understanding the cause of a transient ischaemic attack (TIA).

The test excludes or confirms the presence of plaques in the arteries being examined and quantifies the degree of their dangerousness based on the percentage of stenosis (that is, how much space these plaques take up inside the artery). We also evaluate the type of plaque, commonly referred to as calcific or lipidic, which allows us to better understand its dangerousness and better determine a therapeutic procedure.

Complementary to this examination is the "dynamic study" of the vertebral arteries. These arteries are often involved in the troublesome phenomena of vertigo, often secondary to head movements or positional.

The dynamic study, which is usually requested by the otorhinolaryngologist or audiologist, has the precise purpose of understanding to what extent the circulation of the vertebral arteries is affected by movements of the head (dynamic evaluation).

Sometimes, but usually at the specific request of the audiologist, the examination is extended to include an evaluation of the small arteries located in the auditory labyrinth. All these tests are painless and non-invasive.


Chronic Cerebrovascular Venous Insufficiency (CCSVI) is a test coined and first developed by Prof. Paolo Zamboni to assess the venous return

of blood to the brain. The concept is "so much blood comes in, so much must go out" in a kind of closed circuit.

The evaluation is particularly indicated for progressive neurological diseases, such as multiple sclerosis, and will then be extended to other diseases such as Meniere's syndrome, sudden deafness, headaches resistant to traditional treatments, Parkinson's disease. Recent studies have shown that dental problems, such as poor occlusion, can also alter cerebrovascular return.

Currently, there are only a few specialists who are able to carry out the examination according to the protocol developed by Zamboni;

Dr. Bavera is one of this small group of doctors and there are numerous publications on this subject, in addition to his interventions at national and international conferences and congresses.

It is a non-invasive test that takes up to 50-60 minutes of time and possibly the active collaboration of the patient in performing certain respiratory exercises that are not difficult.

arti inferori

The ecocolordoppler of the lower limbs is used to evaluate the circulation in its arterial distribution (i.e. from the heart to the feet) and venous distribution (in the opposite direction).

Arterial pathologies often cause pain when walking, with cramps in the thigh or calf, sometimes requiring frequent stops in a given space, expressed in metres. This is technically known as "intermittent claudication".


It may be caused by a more or less severe stenosis (narrowing) of an artery, or by its total occlusion. We assess the possible collateral circulation and the severity of the problem as a whole and any other associated pathologies.

Venous problems are often already clinically assessed by a specialist. However, to confirm, exclude or make a differential diagnosis, the ECD is used to assess the presence and extent of superficial venous thrombosis (TVS) or deep vein thrombosis (DVT) of a limb. This last condition is particularly dangerous because, if diagnosed late, it can lead to a pulmonary embolism.


The ECD evaluation then quantifies, confirms or excludes the indication for a possible surgical intervention on the varicose veins, with the precise aim, if possible, of protecting the great saphenous vein or the small saphenous vein from too radical or even unnecessary interventions, such as a radical safenectomy.

terapia sclerosante

Often confused with a purely aesthetic treatment, this is not the case.

It must be made clear that these treatments must be carried out by professionals who are familiar with the products, the clinical situation and the anatomy.

Sclerotherapy: the plural is used deliberately because sclerotherapy is the expression of a treatment "made to measure" for the different possible situations of chronic venous insufficiency. From telangiectasias (capillaries) to varicose veins.

Periodic "recalls" are often necessary.

The capillaries, for example, which are ugly to look at but not clinically serious, are often the expression of an underlying venous insufficiency that is not visible to the naked eye. This confirms the clinical expression and not just the aesthetic.

Treating only the capillaries without "closing" what feeds them is of little use.

This explains the frequent failure of the laser on the capillaries of the lower limbs.

The veins and the veins themselves are another story: some may undergo sclerotherapy to complete a previous varicose vein operation, while others may be treated to avoid surgery.

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